TEORI: Phenomenology

Februari 14, 2020


Oleh: Muhammad Alif Faturrachman
(Founder Mediatikusastra)

‘Phenomenology’ is usually used to designate a major movement in twentieth-century philosophy. The word itself stems from the Greek verb ‘phaino’ meaning ‘to bring to light’ or ‘to make to appear’, and has the literal meaning of ‘science of appearances’. The Phenomenology theory was founded by the German philosopher Edmund Husserl. As a philosophical method, this theory attempts to solve the separation between subject and object or the mental and the material by examining consciousness and the object of consciousness simultaneously (Newton, 1988).

Roman Ingarden, the Polish philosopher and literary theorist, applied Husserlian phenomenology to the study of literature. In his opinion, he saw literary works might be an appropriate research object using the phenomenological approach which was proposed by Edmund Husserl because consciousness operating intentionally is necessary to bring them into existence. Criticism should be concerned with neither the literary work as the object nor the reader as the subject but with the fact that the work has no existence other than as an object presented to consciousness. In short, Phenomenological literature in lines of meaning can be seen as the literature involved. The poet-phenomenologist is a writer who is able to speak for himself in the field of events. Enjoying sleep in the Merdeka Palace, the pain of being 'raped', the feeling of being  'sold', the feeling of how the baby drank from his or her mother breast, and other related matters that are in need of the writer or researcher involvement (Arum, 2019).

In my opinion based on the previous discussion, phenomenology criticism is an interesting theory as its focus on the meaning of the phenomenon that exists on the literary works itself rather than the meaning outside of the phenomenon. This theory also used to analyze those occurrences that exist in the literary works as a reflection of the real-life phenomenon itself. Phenomenology is one of the characteristics of post-modernism which has begun to questions and rejects the tyranny of the grand narration which is specifically a claim to the truth of modernism. Scientific positivism based on overstates empirical data-based scholarship has confound the diversity and the possibility of many unusual-phenomenon.
Newton K.M. 1988. phenomenological criticism. Palgrave: London

Arum G.A.L. 2019. sastra fenomenologis. Retrieved from https://www.kurungbuka.com/sastra-fenomenologis/


Muhammad Alif Faturrachman kerap disapa dengan panggilan “Alif”, “Alep”, “Toad” adalah seorang pemuisi amatiran serta salah satu Founder dari Mediatikusastra. Ia memiliki passion di bidang desain grafis dan komputer dengan jejak rekam petualangan sebagai lulusan “terbaik” dari SMK Negeri 1 Sungailiat, sebuah gelar yang sengaja ia klaim sepihak agar terdengar prestis. Kini, takdir membawa Alif ke jurusan Sastra Inggris di sebuah universitas negeri di Indonesia, dimana ia harus meninggalkan mimpi menjadi seorang game developer atau seorang desainer grafis dan apalah itu mimpi-mimpi yang pernah ia impikan.

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